Campus Policies and Procedures

This section contains general campus policies and procedures which apply to all students. Specific policies for student organizations or residence halls may be found in other sections of the Student Handbook.


Any publication, poster, advertisement or brochure circulated off campus MUST be cleared through University Relations.

Alcohol Policy

First and foremost, Bryant University follows and enforces state and federal laws regarding alcohol. Further, Bryant University is committed to encouraging and facilitating responsible student decision making. The University recognizes that responsible decision-making concerning alcohol is especially crucial to the health and safety of students, the campus community, university property, and the educational mission of the institution. Alcohol abuse is shown to have serious negative effects on the abilities of students to reach their educational goals. While students have the primary responsibility for maintaining their academic progress and overall health, Bryant University must, in all of its programs, services and activities promote and enforce the responsible use of alcohol on its campus and among its community members. To achieve this goal, as well as to monitor and regulate alcohol-related behavior, Bryant has adopted the following policies.

A. Summary of State and City Laws Concerning Alcohol

  1. Rhode Island law regarding alcoholic beverages states that no alcoholic beverages can be sold, delivered or in any way given to a person under twenty-one (21) years of age. The possession of alcohol is also in violation of this State law. Anyone under the age of twenty-one (21) years who knowingly makes false statements as to their age in order to purchase or in any way procure alcoholic beverages shall be subject to appropriate penalties by the State of Rhode Island. This includes the use of falsified or false identification in order to procure alcohol in violation of the law. BRYANT UNIVERSITY IS OBLIGATED TO ABIDE BY AND ENFORCE THIS STATE LAW.
  2. Open Container: Smithfield Town Ordinance (chapter 118) prohibit open containers of alcohol in public areas. This includes outside, public lounges, hallways, etc.
  3. Outdoor Gatherings and Alcohol: In accordance with the Smithfield Town ordinance prohibiting open containers of alcohol outside, alcohol is not permitted outside, with the exception of licensed permit areas during pre-approved major campus events.

 B. Enforcement

While it is understood that employees of the Department of Public Safety and the Office of Residential Life encounter violations of these policies more often than others, enforcement of the alcohol policy and other policies contained in the Student Handbook are the responsibility of all members of the Bryant community. Faculty members, administrators, staff members and students may report violations of the alcohol policy to the Department of Public Safety.

Alcohol Citations

Department of Public Safety (DPS) officers are authorized to issue alcohol citations when violations of the campus rules and state and federal laws pertaining to the possession and use of alcohol are determined to have been violated.

 C. Alcohol Limits

Students who are 21 and over may have in their possession no more than the following amounts of alcohol at any time. These amounts are as follows:

  • 12 pack of beer
  • 12 Flavored malt beverages/wine coolers
  • Maximum of 750 milliliters of wine
  • Maximum of 375 milliliters of distilled spirits
  • Students may only possess one of the categories above at a time. (For example, students may not possess a 12 pack of beer and 750 milliliters of wine at the same time)
  • Grain alcohol or equivalent substances are not permitted
  • Beer and other alcoholic substances must be transported in the designated quantity
  • Transportation in packaging of quantities larger than designated is not permitted
  • The University reserves the right to confiscate all of the alcohol in question if circumstances dictate so
  • Confiscated alcohol is disposed of; it will not be returned regardless of age

D. Locations in which Alcohol may be consumed

  1. Residence Halls
  2. Students over the age of 21 may consume alcohol in the privacy of their residence hall bedrooms.
  3. Students may consume alcohol in their suite/TH lounges/ common areas only when all residents of the suite/TH are 21 or over.
  4. Students who are underage may not possess or drink alcoholic beverages.
  5. No alcoholic beverages are permitted in Residence Halls Bristol, Warren, and Barrington, or any other designated first-year area.
  6. Licensed Facilities
  7. The only entity permitted to sell alcohol on the Bryant Campus is the Campus Dining Services.
  8. License holders on the Bryant Campus are responsible for ensuring that alcohol is not available to persons under the age of 21 or to those who appear intoxicated.
  9. Proper Identification is required to be served alcohol.

E. Violations

There are a number of potential violations of the alcohol policy, including, but not limited to:

Under the age of 21:

  • Consuming alcohol
  • Possessing alcohol
  • Purchasing or attempting to purchase alcohol
  • Purchasing or attempting to purchase alcohol with false identification
  • Transporting alcohol
  • Being in the presence of alcohol

General violations:

  • Common containers are not allowed
  • Providing/serving alcohol to minors
  • Selling alcohol to or purchasing alcohol for a minor
  • Purchasing and transporting to campus unreasonably
  • High amounts of alcohol
  • Open containers in public areas or outside
  • Significant impairment of functioning due to alcohol
  • Encouraging or contributing to the intoxication of another person
  • Drinking games or simulated drinking games (defined as games that promote the rapid consumption of alcohol. This includes, but is not limited to: beer pong, flip cup, funneling, Quarters or altered board games)
  • Possession or use of alcohol paraphernalia/drinking apparatus
  • Large alcohol gathering that exceeds space capacity or involves high risk behavior

F. Guidelines

  1. In cases where large groups of students are drinking outside a specific living unit, that living unit will be assumed to have sponsored the gathering. Accordingly, residents of that living unit will be held responsible for an unauthorized gathering and for serving alcohol.
  2. Residents of specific living units, e.g., townhouses, suites, etc., will be held responsible for violations of the alcohol policy occurring within their living units or sponsored by them. Students with multiple violations of these policies may evicted from the residence halls. Additionally, they may be suspended from Bryant University.

G. Parental Notification

The University has determined that parents or legal guardians of minors will be notified when there is a violation of alcohol and/or drug policy.

H. Sanctions

The Associate Vice President for Student Affairs or designee may restrict a student with a significant prior conduct history or who has currently active sanctions from participating in Study Abroad or Sophomore International Experience opportunities. Any drinking that leads to high-risk behavior will be subject to additional sanctions.

I. Alcohol Education

As part of Bryant University’s comprehensive alcohol education strategy, we offer pre-college alcohol education, programming in the residence halls, on-going alcohol free events, and intervention services. The Bryant community encourages all of its members to seek professional assistance when they have recognized an alcohol use problem. The Bryant community can seek assistance from the following offices: Health Services, Residential Life, Community Standards, Counseling Services, Human Resources and Public Safety.

J. Campus Events Involving Alcohol

  1. Campus events must be registered and approved by the Offices of Residential Life, Office of Student Event Services & Orientation Programs, Department of Public Safety, and/or Conference Services.
  2. Campus Dining Services will be responsible for securing all applicable alcohol sale permits for major campus events.
  3. Consumption of alcohol is permitted only within the limits of a pre-approved area at the event site.
  4. Non-alcoholic beverages must be available at the same price or less as the alcoholic beverage(s), and featured as prominently as the alcoholic beverage(s).
  5. A reasonable portion of the budget for the event shall be designated for the purchase of food items.
  6. No event shall include any form of drinking contest in its activities or promotion.
  7. “All you can drink events” at which an unlimited amount of alcohol may be consumed for one fee, or special price promotions are not permitted.
  8. Institutionally approved security personnel shall be present at all times during major campus events, as deemed necessary.
  9. The sale of alcohol will be by special permission only.

K. Alcohol and Campus Organizations/Departments/Activities

  1. Alcohol may not be used at membership recruitment functions by any campus organization, including, but not limited to:
  • student organizations
  • fraternities or sororities
  • departmental clubs
  • special interest groups
  • faculty or staff professional groups, etc.
  1. Alcohol may not be served, consumed, or otherwise present at athletic, Intramural or recreational sports events.


Animals are not allowed in any Bryant University building. Any pet on campus must be leashed at all times, in accordance with ordinances of the Town of Smithfield. Tupper exception! Information regarding Service Animals and Emotional Support Animals can be found in the Residential Life section of the Student Handbook.


See Parking and Traffic Rules

Cable TV

Cable TV will be offered in common areas across campus. Due to extremely low use by the student body, it will not be available in the residence halls or townhouses. Students have the option to contract with an alternative cable streaming provider (Sling, YouTube TV, Philo, fuboTV, Hulu, etc.) should they wish to do so.


Any object or substance used in the commission of a crime or to violate any provision of the Student Handbook may be confiscated and disposed of as deemed appropriate by a University official.

Demonstration Policy

Bryant University affirms the right to peaceful assembly and free speech. At the same time, the University has long recognized that the right to protest and demonstrate does not include the right to engage in conduct that disrupts the University’s operations or endangers the safety of others. The rights of others to participate in learning, teaching, and other campus events and activities must not be infringed upon.

Guidelines and Expectations for Protest Attendance and Participation

Bryant University has specific guidelines for protest activities that protect the rights of all members of the University Community. These are found in the Student Handbook Code of Conduct. Failure to abide by these regulations may result in action by the Department of Public Safety and/or the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs.

Some general parameters include:

  • Do not block egress to and from campus buildings, offices and classrooms
  • Signs supported by standards or sticks are not allowed
  • Noise that interferes with classes, events, and other activities is not acceptable
  • Sound amplification can only be used with prior permission
  • Demonstrations or behavior that obstruct or seriously impair the ability of the administration, staff, and/or faculty to conduct University business are not allowed

Protests or demonstrations that infringe upon the rights of others to peaceful assembly, orderly protest, free exchange of ideas, or that interfere with the rights of others to make use of or enjoy the facilities or attend the functions of the University will not be tolerated. The Unistructure Rotunda and Fisher Center Patio are the sites designated for protests and demonstrations.

It is a violation of these policies whenever any individual prevents, or willfully attempts to prevent, the orderly conduct of a University function or activity, such as lectures, meetings, interviews, ceremonies, or public presentations; or blocks, or willfully attempts to block, the legitimate activities of any person on the campus or in any University building or facility. The unauthorized occupation, or attempted occupation, of any University office or other work space that impedes the normal flow of activity is strictly prohibited.

Whenever a member of the University community, that is a member of the faculty, staff, or student body, violates these policies, that individual will be subject to University discipline and/or arrest. Whenever a nonmember of the University community violates these policies, that individual will be subject to arrest. Decisions to invoke University disciplinary action or arrest in the course of a protest or demonstration will be made after due warning and, wherever possible, such decisions will be made by officers of the University.

Drone or UAV Operational Guidelines

These guidelines cover any and all property owned and or operated by Bryant University (Bryant).  Bryant permits the recreational use and business-related use of Drones or UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) on its Smithfield campus. Recreational uses are limited to areas within Bryant’s property boundaries but outside of the areas shaded in red on the attached map. Business-related operations may occur throughout the entire campus. All UAV operations must adhere to the following guidelines:

  • The operation of any Drone or UAV over exterior lands not owned and operated by Bryant shall fall under state and federal regulations for UAV usage. Please refer to the May 2016 Federal Aviation Administration’s memo regarding “Educational Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).”
  • The operation of any UAV equipment on and over lands owned and operated by Bryant shall follow all state and federal regulations and requires a prior filing of an operating plan with the Department of Public Safety (DPS).
    1. The Director of DPS will review the plan and make a recommendation to the VP of Student Affairs for its approval, noting any limitations.
    2. Law Enforcement use of UAV technology in execution of a search warrant or as part of a tactical response to an immediate threat is automatically authorized, subject to applicable law and government regulations.
    3. Operators will check in with the Director of DPS before use on campus and will notify the Director upon leaving campus.
  • Operating plans must be submitted to the Department of Public Safety and must include the following:
    1. Equipment to be used, (include information about the UAV control systems, communication systems etc.)
    2. Date and approximate time to be used,
    3. Location(s) to be used,
    4. Purpose(s) of the operation,
    5. The identity and contact information of pilot(s) or other remote operator(s),
    6. All forms of data (including imagery) to be collected,
    7. Current status of any required licenses or permissions
    8. Provisions for security of the equipment, both during and outside of operation, and of any sensitive data collected.
  • For approval of an operating plan:
    1. Plan must be submitted at least 72 hours prior to operations on campus.
    2. The plan must include all required information in its content,
    3. The envisioned operation must comply with applicable laws, government regulations, and other University policies,
    4. The envisioned operation must not pose an unacceptable threat to health, safety, privacy, or the environment, either in an absolute sense or compared to other methods of obtaining the desired information,
    5. The envisioned operation must be judged by Bryant administrators to be in the best interest of the public and the University.
  • The Director of DPS will notify operators of approval to operate on campus in writing. This must be received before the UAV is brought onto campus.
  • The University holds the right to immediately shut down the operation of an UAV if:
    1. it creates any type of electronic interference;
    2. poses a hazard to sensitive campus equipment;
    3. interferes with any Bryant activity, or if;
    4. the operation of the UAV is contrary to the educational mission of the University.
  • The University reserves the right to confiscate a UAV if the owner/operator has violated any of the terms of this policy.

Any questions or comments about this

UAV policy shall be directed to the Department of Public Safety at 401-232-6001 or by email at Prohibited flying areas shaded in red.

Drugs, Marijuana And Other Substances

On May 25, 2022, Rhode Island became the 19th state to legalize the recreational use of marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Despite this change in state law, Bryant University’s policies remain unchanged. Bryant University prohibits the use, possession, manufacturing, distribution, or being in the presence of marijuana in any form. Possession of drug-related paraphernalia is also prohibited. Bryant University will remain in compliance with the requirements of the federal Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act.

This federal law requires that higher education institutions such as Bryant University must certify that policies and programs are implemented to prevent the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of alcohol and illicit drugs for students, faculty, and staff on campus. By abiding with federal laws, this includes the prohibition of marijuana in any form or amount on Bryant University’s campus.

The illegal sale, possession and/or use of controlled substances, e.g., alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, and other hallucinogens, and prescription medications belonging to another are prohibited on the Bryant campus or at any University sponsored function. Students and student organizations are subject to University disciplinary action and referral to local authorities for violation of the University drug policy.

Education, Counseling, and Treatment
Counseling Services 401-232-6045
Health Services 401-232-6220

Students who believe they have a problem with alcohol or other drugs may present their concerns to the Office of Counseling Services and/or the Office of Health Services. The professional staff in these offices can provide personal advising or counseling, detailed information on health risks and intervention strategies, and/or referrals to specialized substance abuse treatment programs as needed. All contacts with these offices are confidential and private.

If you have any questions or concerns regarding Bryant University’s drug policies, please contact The Office of Community Standards.

Guest Policy

  1. A guest is considered anyone that does not reside in a student’s room, suite, or townhouse.
  2. No student shall have more than one Non-Bryant guest at any time. 
  3. The behavior of guests is the responsibility of the host student. Host students will be held responsible for inappropriate behavior (vandalism, fights, etc.) committed by their guests. Therefore, students are required to accompany their guests around the campus at all times and to monitor their behavior.
  4. Each student has the right to their room, however, the further privilege of entertaining guests in a bedroom is a negotiable agreement between roommates.
  5. Guests will not be permitted on campus unless cleared by their hosts through the entrance gate. Guests coming on campus after 11:45 pm must have their host come to claim them at the gate.
  6. Guest may stay overnight in the residence halls or townhouses for a maximum of two (2) nights within a seven-day period.
  7. Resident students who consistently stay/sleep in another resident’s room and/or suite for more than two nights may be subject to disciplinary action. 
  8. All guests of students shall be at least eighteen (18) years of age, unless accompanied by a parent or certified legal guardian, or with prior approval of the parent or guardian from the Residential Life Office. Students expecting guests under the age of 18 must request such permission from the Residential Life Office no less than three (3) days before their guest’s scheduled arrival.
  9. Violation of guest policy may result in loss of future guest privileges.
  10. Alumni who are staying overnight in the residence halls need to be registered as guests.
  11. Guests (regardless of age) may not bring any amount of alcohol onto campus at any time.
  12. Guest passes will not be issued for the first full weekend of the Fall Semester, nor from the Wednesday before Spring Weekend through the Sunday of Spring Weekend. Likewise, guest passes will not be issued from the final day of classes each semester through the conclusion of the final exam schedule. Guest passes will not be issued during breaks, holidays, and summer semesters. Please contact the Vice President for Student Affairs/Dean of Students Office at 401-232-6046 with any questions. 

Guest Policy for Commuting Students
1. Commuting students are not considered guests and may enter campus at any time with a valid Bryant University ID.
2. Commuters may host guests. The guest policy applies to their guests.
3. Commuters staying overnight in a residence hall must obtain a guest pass through a resident student. In this case, all policies and procedures noted for outside guests shall apply to the commuting student.

Guest Pass Procedure
The Guest Pass System can be accessed in:
1. Bryant Mobile App – click on the Guest Pass Icon (you must be logged in to the mobile app to access the Guest Pass system)
2. Banner Self-Service – Personal Tab – Guest Passes link

Guest Pass Process

  • You will be prompted to enter your guest’s name (or you can select a returning guest’s name from the dropdown menu) email address, date of arrival and departure. BE SURE TO ENTER THE CORRECT EMAIL ADDRESS FOR YOUR GUEST
  • Once you click submit, your guest will get an email with a link to fill out the guest pass details (Date of Birth, picture, vehicle registration info, and emergency contact details) INFORM YOUR GUEST THAT THEY WILL BE RECEIVING THIS EMAIL AND THAT THEY NEED TO SUBMIT REQUESTED INFORMATION ASAP
  • If your guest is under the age of 18 the request will be sent to the Office of Residential Life for approval.
    • Students expecting guests under the age of 18 must submit the guest pass request no less than three (3) days before their guest’s scheduled arrival so the office has adequate time to review the request.
    • You will get an email confirmation when your guest pass for guests under the age of 18 has been approved or denied by Residential Life.
  • Your guest will be emailed an Electronic Guest Pass that will have their picture, name, age, email address, emergency contact info, and vehicle registration info and arrival date.
    • They should keep this email and have it readily available when they check in at the Entry Control Station and the entire time they are visiting campus.
    • Guest must have a photo ID indicating their date of birth when they check in at the Entry Control Station.
  • Please report any issues with the Guest Pass system to Laptop Central at extension 6550, or at
  • Residential Life Occupancy Limits require students to coordinate with their roommate(s) regarding occupancy limits. The maximum number of individuals allowed in a residence hall room totals a maximum capacity of six (6) persons; suites totals a maximum capacity of fifteen (15) persons; townhouses totals a maximum capacity of twenty (20) persons at any given time.


No student or group of students shall encourage or participate in any form of hazing on or off campus. Hazing is defined as any action taken or situation created to produce excessive mental or physical discomfort, embarrassment, harassment or ridicule. Such activities and situations include, but are not restricted to, paddling in any form; creation of excessive fatigue; requiring the consumption of alcohol; physical and psychological shocks; quests, treasure hunts, scavenger hunts, road trips or any other such activities conducted off-campus; wearing in public any apparel which is not normally in good taste; engaging in public stunts; morally degrading games and activities which are not consistent with the law, ritual or policy of Greek governing bodies, the policies of student organizations, athletic teams, and Bryant departments, or the regulations, policies, and standards of Bryant University.

Hover Boards, Electric Scooters, And Other Lithium Battery Powered Devices

Hover boards, electric scooters and other lithium battery powered devices are prohibited from campus due to fire safety hazard.

Logo Use/Graphic Standards

Bryant University has a clearly defined logo treatment that consists of the official University Seal and a Wordmark. This treatment should be used on any digital or print communication that represent the institution. Furthermore, the University Seal cannot be altered or modified in any way. To use the logo, an individual, organization, or department is asked to contact University Marketing and Communications to request permission.

Aside from the University logo treatment there are two other accepted logos that fall within the Bryant University graphic standards.
∙ Bryant Bulldogs (athletic logo)
∙ Bryant Alumni Association logo
Individuals or organizations wishing to use either of these logos must also contact the University Marketing and Communications for prior approval.

Lost And Found

The Department of Public Safety (DPS) serves as the lost and found repository at Bryant University. All articles found should be turned into DPS. Claims for lost articles should be made at the DPS office, Monday to Friday, 8:30 am to 4:00 pm. Articles not claimed within a reasonable time may be disposed of as determined appropriate.

Pond Safety

For your safety, swimming, ice skating, walking on ice, and throwing persons or objects in the pond is prohibited at all times.

Skateboards/Roller Blades

Skateboards and roller blades and any other wheeled transportation (i.e. razor scooters) may be used on University sidewalks, but skateboard or roller blade use is strictly prohibited inside any building.

Solicitation and Selling Policies

Charitable, Religious, and Political Solicitations

Charitable, religious and political solicitation on University property is not allowed unless they have received the permission of the Vice President for Student Affairs/Dean of Students or designee. Permission for such solicitation will be granted only to the extent that such activities are consistent in time, place, and manner with the mission and activities of Bryant University.

Student Ventures 

Student ventures are defined as projects conducted by students for the purpose of making a profit. Solicitation applies to commercial, charitable, religious and political endeavors.

• No Bryant University student may engage in the sale and distribution of goods or services to or solicitation of subscriptions from Bryant University students, faculty, and/or staff without the approval in writing from the Vice President for Student Affairs and Dean of Students or designee.
• Bryant University assumes no liability for the products or services provided by student businesses.
• Students may not use their residence hall address (i.e., Bryant University post office box number) as a business address.
• All parties granted permission to sell or solicit for the sale of merchandise must agree to abide by appropriate federal, state and local regulations.
• The office of the Vice President for Student Affairs and Dean of Students may review at any time the operation of any student business and may revoke its permission to operate on campus.

Student Organization Ventures / Fundraisers

Student organization ventures/fundraisers are projects conducted by Recognized Student Organizations (RSOs) for the purpose of making a profit. Student organizations may sell or solicit for the sale of merchandise on campus only with the written approval of Student Activities. Such approval will be given only when it can be shown that the primary beneficiaries of the sale will be the University community and the student organization. RSOs seeking approval for fundraising and business endeavors must fill out this form.

Non-Student Ventures

Non-student ventures include all efforts to sell or solicit for the sale of merchandise by University employees, University affiliates, or commercial vendors.

  • University employees may sell or solicit for the sale of merchandise on campus only as directly related to the purpose and description of their employment.
  • University affiliates may sell or solicit for the sale of merchandise on campus only as provided for in their written terms of affiliation with Bryant University.
  • Commercial vendors may sell or solicit for the sale of merchandise on campus only with the written authorization of an office of Bryant University acting within the scope of its authority.

Tuition Refund Insurance

For a small fraction of the overall tuition costs, GradGuard Tuition Insurance can protect your investment. Their Tuition Insurance provides reimbursement when a student is unable to complete an academic term due to an unforeseen, serious injury or illness, mental health condition or chronic illness.

University Policy On Trips

  • Private or commercial trips may not be advertised in university facilities or on bulletin boards without the permission of Student Activities. Advertising is prohibited on/under residence hall doors or on car windshields.
  • Recognized Student Organizations may use University facilities and bulletin boards to advertise approved trips. However, the University does not imply any sponsorship of such trips by use of its facilities for advertisement purposes only.
  • Student trips must be registered and approved by the office that oversees their day-to-day operations and policies. This includes:
    • Student Activities (for recognized student organizations)
    • Office of Residential Life (for RAs)
    • Department of Athletics (for Athletic Teams and Club Sports)
    • Other appropriate University offices (depending on the trip)
  • Students have no authority to contract for trips or travel arrangements on behalf of Bryant Campus Division heads (e.g. VPSA, Athletic Director, etc.), or their designees, are the only authorized agents of the University in this regard. Trips conducted against this policy by students or student organizations are not considered official University organization travel, and the sponsoring organization may have any or all of its privileges as an organization revoked. Individual students organizing such unauthorized trips may also be subject to disciplinary action.
  • Student organization advisors must notify the Department of Public Safety of buses coming onto campus to pick up students. They must indicate time and location of arrival.
  • Recognized Student Organizations should refer to the CSLI Manual for Recognized Student Organizationsor contact their Student Activities adviser, for specific information on travel guidelines related to their organization. This includes the type of travel they are authorized to conduct (e.g. daytime, overnight) and information on any professional staffing/adviser presence that may be required.


  • The possession of firearms, fireworks, ammunition, explosives, knives or other dangerous weapons or any instrument used as a weapon is strictly prohibited on campus. Instruments such as pellet guns, paint ball guns, BB guns, projectiles, and other instruments in which the propelling force is spring, air, piston, CO2, or brute force are considered weapons.
  • Folding knives that have blades that do not exceed 3 inches are permitted except in sponsored events. If brought to sponsored events, they will be confiscated. Any knife or instrument with a cutting edge greater than 3 inches will be confiscated without return. Kitchen knives are allowed in the kitchen areas of townhouses and should be used for intended culinary purposes only.
  • Brandishing weapons such as hand pellet guns and other weapons where a reasonable person may interpret it to be a genuine article may have criminal as well as Code of Conduct implications.
Last Modified: August 7, 2023